Swedish scientist: Nicotine causes psychiatric disorders and epigenetic changes that are passed on to offspring – whopdidoo!

 

 

http://www.tobaksfakta.se/nikotinet-bygger-om-hjarnan/

 

New research suggests that the highly addictive substance nicotine can exacerbate psychiatric diagnoses, have effects over the generations and increase the risk of becoming addicted to alcohol.

 

Louise Adermark, University of Gothenburg, researches how nicotine affects the brain. Photo: Maj-Lis Koivisto

 

Nicotine rewires the brain

New research indicates that the very addictive substance nicotine can exacerbate psychiatric conditions, has effects over generations and increases the risk of alcohol addiction.

 

“It is extremely important to keep tobacco consumption down in society, there are many gains to be had,” says Louise Adermark, associate professor at the Department of Neuroscience and Physiology at the University of Gothenburg, who researches how nicotine affects the brain.

 

That nicotine is so addictive depends on the nicotine receptors. They are the body’s “reception centers” for nicotine and are found in many places in the body. Repeated exposure to nicotine by, for example smoking or snus, increases the number of nicotine receptors, which can affect many functions in the body.

 

Nicotine affects the body’s reward system by releasing dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that makes us feel good and feel awake, happy and present.

 

–The reward system is important for survival. In addition to making us feel good, we need it for memory and learning, says Louise Adermark.

 

But dopamine is also a “rewire the brain” molecule. Nicotine changes the communication in the brain and affects how the tobacco user acts and thinks in the longer term.

 

– Since almost all cells in the brain’s reward system have nicotine receptors, this system changes with repeated nicotine use. This in turn makes it easy to become addicted. Not only to nicotine, but also of other substances, such as alcohol, she says.

 

Exacerbates anxiety and apprehension

 

The nicotine also affects feelings such as anxiety and apprehension. Initially, you feel better with nicotine, but in the long term the feelings of anxiety and apprehensiveness are exacerbated.

 

–There is a high proportion of smokers among people with psychiatric diagnoses. Previously cigarettes have been regarded as a kind of self-medication, but new research suggests that the nicotine may increase the risk of developing a diagnosis. Human research is supported by studies done on animals. These studies show that nicotine slowly “rebuilds” the brain, which leads to changes in how the animals behave, even when they do not have nicotine in the body, says Louise Adermark.

 

It is also not a coincidence that cigarettes and alcohol are connected. Smokers consume twice as much alcohol as non-smokers. Most alcoholics are smokers. Louise Adermark explains about animal experiments where animals were offered to choose between drinking water and drinking alcohol.

 

–When giving the animals nicotine, all animals began to drink more alcohol, she says, and says that there is a connection between the age of the nicotine debut and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs later in life.

 

Another thing that has been shown by animal testing is that the nicotine can have effects that extend over generations.

 

– Genetic studies in rats and mice indicate that nicotine changes genetics and behaviour for several generations. It may involve increased risk of asthma, increased intake of addictive substances, hyperactivity, and more. The results apply regardless of whether it is the male or female who has been exposed to nicotine, says Louise Adermark.

 

 

PLEASE FIND BELOW HER CITED WORK AT THE U OF GOTHENBURG WEBSITE – ON PUBMED ONLY 6 CITATIONS AND NONE ABOUT NICOTINE

 

2018

Progressive modulation of accumbal neurotransmission and anxiety-like behavior following protracted nicotine withdrawal
Julia Morud, Joakim StrandbergAnna AndrénMia EricsonBo Söderpalm et al.
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2018
Journal article

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on a web page

Complex Control of Striatal Neurotransmission by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors via Excitatory Inputs onto Medium Spiny Neurons
Valentina LicheriOona LagströmAmir Lotfi, X. H. Patton, Holger Wigström et al.
Journal of Neuroscience, Journal article 2018
Journal article

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on a web page

Acute and chronic modulation of striatal endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity by nicotine.
Louise Adermark, Julia Morud Lekholm, Amir Lotfi MoghaddamMia EricsonBo Söderpalm
Addiction biology, Journal article 2018
Journal article

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on a web page

A molecular mechanism for choosing alcohol over an alternative reward
E. Barbier, R. S. Dulman, Valentina Licheri, G. Augier, E. Domi et al.
Science, Journal article 2018
Journal article

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on a web page

2017

Minor adaptations of ethanol-induced release of taurine following chronic ethanol intake in the rat
Mia EricsonLisa UleniusLouise AdermarkBo Söderpalm
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Springer, Conference paper 2017
Conference paper

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Ethanol-induced taurine elevation in the rat dorsal striatum
Lisa UleniusLouise AdermarkBo SöderpalmMia Ericson
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Journal article 2017
Journal article

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2016

Temporal Rewiring of Striatal Circuits Initiated by Nicotine
Louise Adermark, Julia Morud, Amir LotfiKlara DanielssonLisa Ulenius et al.
Neuropsychopharmacology, Journal article 2016
Journal article

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on a web page

Disentangling the Role of Astrocytes in Alcohol Use Disorder
Louise Adermark, M. S. Bowers
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, Journal article 2016
Journal article

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on a web page

Nicotine produces chronic behavioral sensitization with changes in accumbal neurotransmission and increased sensitivity to re-exposure
Julia Morud, Louise AdermarkMarta Perez-AlcazarMia EricsonBo Söderpalm
Addiction Biology, Journal article 2016
Journal article

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on a web page

2015

Involvement of Inhibitory Receptors in Modulating Dopamine Signaling and Synaptic Activity Following Acute Ethanol Exposure in Striatal Subregions
Rhona B. C. ClarkeBo SöderpalmAmir LotfiMia EricsonLouise Adermark
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, Journal article 2015
Journal article

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on a web page

Age-contingent influence over accumbal neurotransmission and the locomotor stimulatory response to acute and repeated administration of nicotine in Wistar rats
Louise Adermark, Julia Morud, Amir LotfiSusanne JonssonBo Söderpalm et al.
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2015
Journal article

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on a web page

Alterations in ethanol-induced accumbal transmission after acute and long-term zinc depletion
Julia Morud, Louise AdermarkMia EricsonBo Söderpalm
Addiction Biology, Journal article 2015
Journal article

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on a web page

Astrocyte Function in Alcohol Reward and Addiction
Louise Adermark
Journal of Alcoholism & Drug Dependence , Magazine article 2015
Magazine article

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on a web page

Dopaminergic Regulation of Striatal Interneurons in Reward and Addiction: Focus on Alcohol
Rhona B. C. ClarkeLouise Adermark
Neural Plasticity, Review article 2015
Review article

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on a web page

2014

Increase in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Levels Following Local Ethanol Administration Is Not Mediated by Acetaldehyde
Rhona B. C. ClarkeLouise AdermarkPei Pei ChauBo SöderpalmMia Ericson
Alcohol and Alcoholism, Journal article 2014
Journal article

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on a web page

Locus of onset and subpopulation specificity of in vivo ethanol effect in the reciprocal ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens circuit
J. M. Burkhardt, Louise Adermark
Neurochemistry International, Journal article 2014
Journal article

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Brain region specific modulation of ethanol-induced depression of GABAergic neurons in the brain reward system by the nicotine receptor antagonist mecamylamine
Louise AdermarkBo Söderpalm, J. M. Burkhardt
Alcohol, Journal article 2014
Journal article

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on a web page

The involvement of accumbal glycine receptors in the dopamine-elevating effects of addictive drugs
Susanne JonssonLouise AdermarkMia EricsonBo Söderpalm
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2014
Journal article

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on a web page

2013

Rising taurine and ethanol concentrations in nucleus accumbens interact to produce the dopamine-activating effects of alcohol
Mia EricsonPei Pei ChauLouise AdermarkBo Söderpalm
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Journal article 2013
Journal article

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on a web page

Region-specific depression of striatal activity in Wistar rat by modest ethanol consumption over a ten-month period
Louise AdermarkSusanne JonssonBo Söderpalm, Matts Eriksson
Alcohol, Journal article 2013
Journal article

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on a web page

2012

Changes in glycine receptor subunit expression in forebrain regions of the Wistar rat over development.
Susanne Jonsson, Julia Morud, Christopher PickeringLouise AdermarkMia Ericson et al.
Brain research, Journal article 2012
Journal article

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on a web page

Reduced alcohol intake and reward associated with impaired endocannabinoid signaling in mice with a deletion of the glutamate transporter GLAST.
Rose-Marie Karlsson, Louise Adermark, Anna Molander, Stephanie Perreau-Lenz, Erick Singley et al.
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2012
Journal article

2011

Modulation of endocannabinoid-mediated long-lasting disinhibition of striatal output by cholinergic interneurons.
Louise Adermark
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2011
Journal article

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on a web page

Intermittent ethanol consumption depresses endocannabinoid-signaling in the dorsolateral striatum of rat.
Louise AdermarkSusanne JonssonMia EricsonBo Söderpalm
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2011
Journal article

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on a web page

Implications for glycine receptors and astrocytes in ethanol-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.
Louise AdermarkRhona B. C. Clarke, Torsten Olsson, Elisabeth HanssonBo Söderpalm et al.
Addiction biology, Journal article 2011
Journal article

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on a web page

Subregion-Specific Modulation of Excitatory Input and Dopaminergic Output in the Striatum by Tonically Activated Glycine and GABA(A) Receptors.
Louise AdermarkRhona B. C. ClarkeMia EricsonBo Söderpalm
Frontiers in systems neuroscience, Journal article 2011
Journal article

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on a web page

Rising taurine and ethanol concentrations in nucleus accumbens interact to produce dopamine release after ethanol administration.
Mia EricsonPei Pei ChauRhona B. C. ClarkeLouise AdermarkBo Söderpalm
Addiction biology, Journal article 2011
Journal article

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on a web page

Ethanol-induced modulation of synaptic output from the dorsolateral striatum in rat is regulated by cholinergic interneurons.
Louise AdermarkRhona B. C. ClarkeBo SöderpalmMia Ericson
Neurochemistry international, Journal article 2011
Journal article

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on a web page

2010

beta-alanine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens: antagonism by strychnine.
Mia EricsonPei Pei ChauRhona B. C. ClarkeLouise AdermarkBo Söderpalm
Amino acids, Journal article 2010
Journal article

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on a web page

2009

Lactate contributes to ammonia-mediated astroglial dysfunction during hyperammonemia.
Anna Andersson, Louise AdermarkMikael PerssonAnna Westerlund, Torsten Olsson et al.
Neurochemical research, Journal article 2009
Journal article

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on a web page

Acute ethanol treatment prevents endocannabinoid-mediated long-lasting disinhibition of striatal output.
Rhona B. C. ClarkeLouise Adermark
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2009
Journal article

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on a web page

Endocannabinoid-dependent plasticity at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses in the striatum is regulated by synaptic activity.
Louise Adermark, Giuseppe Talani, David M Lovinger
The European journal of neuroscience, Journal article 2009
Journal article

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on a web page

Frequency-dependent inversion of net striatal output by endocannabinoid-dependent plasticity at different synaptic inputs.
Louise Adermark, David M Lovinger
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, Journal article 2009
Journal article

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2008

Electrophysiological properties and gap junction coupling of striatal astrocytes.
Louise Adermark, David M Lovinger
Neurochemistry international, Journal article 2008
Journal article

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on a web page

Neurotensin reduces glutamatergic transmission in the dorsolateral striatum via retrograde endocannabinoid signaling.
Henry H Yin, Louise Adermark, David M Lovinger
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2008
Journal article

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on a web page

2007

Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at striatal synapses requires a regulated postsynaptic release step.
Louise Adermark, David M Lovinger
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Journal article 2007
Journal article

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Combined activation of L-type Ca2+ channels and synaptic transmission is sufficient to induce striatal long-term depression.
Louise Adermark, David M Lovinger
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, Journal article 2007
Journal article

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on a web page

Ethanol reverses the direction of long-term synaptic plasticity in the dorsomedial striatum.
Henry H Yin, Brian S Park, Louise Adermark, David M Lovinger
The European journal of neuroscience, Journal article 2007
Journal article

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on a web page

2006

Ethanol effects on electrophysiological properties of astrocytes in striatal brain slices.
Louise Adermark, David M Lovinger
Neuropharmacology, Journal article 2006
Journal article

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on a web page

2004

Ethanol acutely decreases astroglial gap junction permeability in primary cultures from defined brain regions
Louise Adermark, Torsten Olsson, Elisabeth Hansson
Neurochemistry International, Journal article 2004
Journal article

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on a web page

2003

Ethanol-mediated effects on astroglial cells in primary culture. With a focus on acute changes in intracellular Ca2+, cell volume, actin filaments, and gap junction coupling
Louise Adermark
Doctoral thesis 2003
Doctoral thesis

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